Learn how to train a dog. Training process: concept, terminology, modeling of behavioral stereotypes.
To train a dog means to solve several tasks at once to change its behavior in various situations. The purpose of training is to model and reinforce such stereotypes that would be comfortable for the owner of the pet. For example, this is obedience. The set of commands that the dog is trained in must be carried out quickly and in full, on demand. Or this behavior on a walk, in a public place, in transport, with guests. Including, without such restrictions as a muzzle or a leash. After all, educating is, practically, how to train a dog in various ways. Only these very methods need to be applied competently, correctly, having a certain amount of knowledge in physiology, psychology and dog training. Unfortunately, many owners take up the training process without having the necessary experience, but at the same time self-confidently relie only on their own strengths. The results are usually deplorable, sometimes tragic.
A dog is not born well-mannered.
It is in books that they like to paint what true friends and defenders grow up in families. In life, this happens extremely rarely. Any puppy requires a long methodical upbringing and training. Only then will a dog grow out of it that knows how to behave at home, not have bad habits, unconditionally approach on command, not pull the leash while walking, and even protect the owner and his family members.
Once upon a time, the ancestors of your pet were specially bred, selecting certain individuals with certain characteristics and qualities. The need for dog training was dictated by its specific application. The best representatives were allowed to breed. So breeds were created – according to exterior characteristics and working qualities. Therefore, a number of dog abilities are genetically fixed. This means that it is easier to train a dog of a certain breed in a particular direction. For example, the Newfoundland is easily trained in water rescue. And the fox terrier – burrow hunting. But to train a Labrador to protect an object is unlikely…
From this it is clear that certain instincts and their complexes are developed differently in different breeds. The training process is a purposeful lifetime development and consolidation of certain hereditary instincts and behavior patterns through the use of various methods of influence (stimuli) that change the dog's behavior. But the use of different methods should be carried out FOR THE PURPOSE. How to train a dog can a specialist without experience? No way. Otherwise, a number of instincts developed over generations will not bring anything but trouble.
Learning to train a dog – mastering the terminology.
Operant conditioning is the conditioning of behavior by its results, consequences. In essence, it is the basis for teaching someone by reinforcing the behavior if it is desired. There are two forms of learning: instrumental learning and creative learning. With instrumental conditioning, spontaneous manifestations are reinforced (by positive or negative reinforcement), with creative learning, brain, mental, mental activity and the results of creative search are stimulated. Both forms of training are used to effectively train a dog. Also, the training process is based on reinforcements of behavioral manifestations.
Examples of positive reinforcement are strokes, verbal praise, and treats. They carry positive emotions.
Negative reinforcement – the impact of negative factors on behavioral stereotypy, through negative emotions in a dog.
Incentives that modify behavior are of two types in direction – positive (encouragement, incentive stimulus) and negative (punishment). They are divided into two types and according to the time of exposure: the discriminant stimulus acts before the behavioral response, and the respondent stimulus – after. In fact, as a rule, their various combinations are more common. Often the question arises of their individual effectiveness and alignment of incentives in order of hierarchical importance. For this, the method of functional analysis, or, more simply, behavioral diagnostics, is used. After determining the functional effectiveness of each stimulus, it is possible to decide how to train a dog, to modify its behavior using operant methods.
With the help of operant methods of training, the following tasks are solved:
- Formation of new behavioral responses.
- Consolidation of an already existing behavioral stereotype using the contrast method.
- Inhibition of unwanted behavioral response.
- The elimination of positive reinforcement after fixing the result.
- Assessment of the final response of the training.
Formation can occur using various methods.
- Shaping is a phased formation of a complex behavioral model on the basis of the first basic impact associated with the final result. For the successful manifestation of the initial element, variable reinforcement is used.
- Clutch – the formation on the basis of individual independent elements of exposure, the sum of which consistently leads to the final result, which is determined by the last, final link of the impact.
- Faiding is a process of gradual reduction in the effects of forming influences and, accordingly, stimuli. This is more common when they are forced to train a dog based on negative reinforcement.
Promotion is a variant of reinforcement by a voice, focusing the attention of a trained individual on the produced model of behavior.
Aversive are the stimuli of negative reinforcements that make the behavior model so as to effectively avoid repetition.
Deprivation – a set of measures to limit the possibility of the implementation of a trained dog to realize their needs – physiological, psychological, social. To train a dog using social deprivation (deprivation of communication with the owner) is an effective and common method.
Insight-the dog’s ability to solve a new problem immediately, without any trial actions, something like “insight” and a simultaneous correct solution. The identification of insight is carried out with various types of dog testing and speaks of its high intellectual capabilities.
Extrapolation of the direction of movement – the ability to predict and predict further movement of the object according to its original movement. This property allows the dog to train faster if you use it correctly.
Thus, we see how much the training process in its components and forms of learning that is used in it can be complicated and diverse. This can be studied in more detail in a very detailed and informative collection of articles on the topic “Trainer process” – general and private issues of dog training.
Training process and the use of obverse methods.
Difficult and ambiguous question. The use of negative reinforcement is an important component of contrast and mechanical training methods. Moreover, in a sufficiently large proportion of trained dogs, it is simply impossible to do without such methods. This is the same as leaving without punishment a child spoiled by permissiveness or an insolent deviant teenager. Any teacher will say that the result of education will be sad. It's the same with dogs. With the difference that we will not be able to appeal to their conscience, logic, reason and other personality traits inherent only to man. Types of negative reinforcement form the basis of aversive training methods and in some cases are no less, and sometimes even more effective, than positive reinforcement.
In fact, also, negative reinforcement, in simple terms, is punishment. Although they are not exactly synonyms. You can read more in detail in a separate article about punishing a dog as a method of education and training, how to properly punish a dog. And when the need arises.
Guía completa para el adiestramiento canino: Mejora la conducta de tu perro con técnicas efectivas
How to train a dog correctly? How to make training more effective?
In the process of training, it is clear that the pace of training in different dogs varies greatly. The degree of obedience is also different. So you need to identify those factors that can increase the likelihood of successfully training a dog.
The theory of functional systems of Academician Anokhin P. K. Helps to identify such factors. According to this theory, the dog is driven not only by primitive biological needs. The behavior of a dog is also determined by social moments, in many respects similar to human ones. At the same time, if there are several needs at once, only one is realized – the strongest. Thus, the dominant nature of the dog will directly depend on its dominant need, which will determine the main complex complexes of behavioral reactions.
For example, hunger creates a motivation to meet the need for food in some way. This motivation becomes dominant and activates the memory of all genetic and acquired patterns of its implementation. On the basis of past patterns, this motivation will be realized in purposeful behavior – the extraction of food in one way or another suitable in a given situation. That is, it is also necessary to have certain conditions of a specific situation – situational and sanctioning (“allowing”) incentives. For example, the time of feeding, the presence of food in the bowl, the permission of the owner. Or the proximity of a garbage dump, and there – the presence of something edible, plus the absence of a restrictive leash for a walk. This is an example of a primitive biological need and motivation. At the same time, a model of the future result of behavior is created even before its implementation, based on previous experience.
We will train the dog in much the same way. For training, the dominant needs of the dog, including social ones, are used. And in the process of training, strong models of behavioral reactions are created when prompted (given a command) and, as a result, the required final result is achieved. This is the essence of the training process.
This is how a habit is formed.
To determine how to train a dog as successfully as possible, we solve intermediate tasks of creating certain skills during the training. A skill is a developed set of sequential actions of a dog that allows you to at least partially meet its needs. Examples:
- Command "Come / Come here" – the dog ran up and got a treat. Partial realization of nutritional needs.
- The dog, on command, marked the found suitcase with the smell of a narcotic substance. As a reward, she received a ball – the realization of a gaming need.
- The dog worked successfully after deprivation in the cage and deprivation of communication with the owner and earned approval, praise with his voice, stroking. This is an example of the realization of the social need for communication.
- Fetchation skill. It is developed on the basis of a play need, the creation of the dog's interest in the tray of the object as a variant of the game plays a role. Although the training process can be built on the realization of nutritional needs or on the use of a mechanical method.
Now about the factors that make it possible to train a dog more effectively.
- Creating a dog of interest in learning. For this, any suitable game methods are used, classes are planned so that the dog is never overwork. The direct training with games and rest alternates. The principles “from simple to complex” and “gradual growth” are not forgotten so that interest in learning does not fade away. After all, it is the successes in training that this interest is strengthened. The fewer intermediate failures, the better.
- Full positive contact of the trainer and dog. Adequate attitude towards the student's pet. Given the features of the upbringing of the dog by its owner, it is necessary to train the dog taking into account its individual characteristics of character and psyche.
- If you are the owner of the dog and do the initial training yourself – first of all, this is the presence of a dog’s trust in you. Without this moment, the effectiveness of training under great doubt.
- Trust in hand goes with a sequence. Both promotion and punishment should be strictly permanent for the same actions. In one case, you can’t punish the dog for something, and another time when repeating the same action is to lower everything on the brakes. It is impossible to encourage her over and over again, for example, when performing the command “Come / Come here”, and then scold it with the same exact execution, but after another misconduct.
- The timeliness of reinforcements. Both encouragement and punishment should follow the assessed actions immediately, without pauses and delay. If it is impossible to encourage encouragement, markers of positive reinforcement are immediately used, for example, “good”, “well done”, “yes”.
In fact, these concepts of “timeliness – sequence – trust” are very interconnected.
- A dog is not born well-mannered.
- Learning to train a dog – mastering the terminology.
- Formation can occur using various methods.
- Training process and the use of obverse methods.
- Guía completa para el adiestramiento canino: Mejora la conducta de tu perro con técnicas efectivas