Blue Buffalo wilderness senior dog food

March 22, 2023
Blue Buffalo wilderness senior dog food

The buffalo is a large-sized animal, its weight can reach more than 1000 kg, but not everyone has such a mass. Speaking about growth, on average this figure ranges from 1 to 1. 5 m, while the limbs of the buffalo are not long, but powerful. Naturally, deviations from the average are permissible, depending on the breed and habitat of the animal.

An interesting fact is that the older the buffalo, the more mass he manages to gain. Males are traditionally more massive, they are heavier than females, which allows them to fight for themselves and their herd. The female on average weighs up to 600 kg, although some endemic species, such as anoa, barely reach 300 kg.

A characteristic feature of buffaloes is the presence of horns. In the most common breed – the African buffalo – the horns are not too large, but at the same time they are directed in different directions and have bends. Outwardly, the place of fusion of the horns with the skull resembles a kind of helmet. There are also such species of animal, such as the Indian buffalo, in which the horns reach record levels: about 2 m in length. At the same time, they are not directed upwards, but also grow to the side, turning back at the end. There are also polled animals, but this is a rather rare occurrence.

Where do buffaloes live

A buffalo is an animal that belongs to the genus of bulls, but with a peculiarity: their horns are hollow. It is worth saying that in USA or Ukraine it is rare to meet one individual, and even more so a family of buffaloes. This is due to the fact that the natural habitat of the bovid animal is a country with a hot climate, where there are no such harsh winters.

Currently, four subspecies of this animal are distinguished:

  • Tamarou.
  • Endemic anoa or dwarf (small, small).
  • Asian (another name for Indian), common on the islands of Sulawesi.
  • African buffalo (lives in Africa and is the most common).

Naturally, the habitat will influence the wild animal, it will be most adapted to its native climate.

However, at present, the animal is protected by the law of many states, as their numbers are massively reduced. Some species, such as anoa, are forced to be placed in the Red Book, as the species is on the verge of extinction. Some attribute it to global warming, someone sees the reason in what is being said about

Hota on these animals, poaching.

African buffalo

African buffalo, or black buffalo (lat. Syncerus caaffer) – a type of bull, widespread in Africa. Being a typical representative of the bull's subfamily, the African buffalo, however, is very peculiar and released into a separate genus Synceruss (this is also the only bullshit in Africa).


To feel all the power and greatness of the African buffalo, just a look at him is enough. Judge for yourself: its height reaches two meters, and the length – three and a half. The weight of an adult male is about a ton, and the greatest threat is not horns (which reach a meter length), but hooves. The front part looks more massive and has a large area of hooves than the back. It is for this reason that the meeting with the African buffalo rushing at high speed becomes the last for the victim.

The most striking representative of the five subspecies of African giants is the Kafrov Buel. It is significantly more than its counterparts and almost completely corresponds to the description above. It has a very formidable disposition, which, as it were, warns the black color of the wool.

Habitat and lifestyle

Already from the name of the animals, it is clear that they live on the African continent. But it is impossible to clearly determine the territory that African bulls prefer. They can live equally well in forests, savannahs and mountains. The main requirement for the terrain is the close location of the water. It is in the savannahs that the Kafra, Senegal and Nile Buwols prefer to remain.

In the natural environment, large colonies of African buffalo can only be found in protected places in the distance from people. Animals do not trust them very much and try to avoid in every possible way, like any other threat. In this, they are largely helped by a beautiful sense of smell and hearing, which cannot be said about vision, which can hardly be called ideal. Females with young offspring behave especially carefully.

The organization of the herd and hierarchy in it deserves special attention. With the slightest danger, the calves move deep into the herds, and the most adults and experienced cover them, forming a dense shield. Between themselves, they communicate through special signals and clearly determine their further actions. In total, the herd can count from 20 to 30 individuals of different ages.

Using a person

Despite the fact that African buffaloes pose a great danger and are very reluctant to make contact with people, the latter still managed to tame the giants and successfully use them in the household. The tribes use these animals as a traction force, cultivating large areas for crops of cereals and other crops.

Also African buffaloes are indispensable as cattle. They are raised for meat, and they do not always wait until the calf reaches its maximum weight. Females give milk of excellent quality, containing a large amount of fat. They make hard and soft cheese, similar to cheese, and drink it just like that.

After the slaughter of African buffaloes, in addition to meat, there is also a lot of useful food left. For example, the skin can be used as bedding, decoration, or used for tailoring. Now massive horns decorate the interior, and earlier they were used to make primitive tools for cultivating the garden. Even the bones are used – burned in the furnace and ground, they are used as fertilizer and feed additive for other domestic animals.

Population status and threats

The African buffalo did not escape the common fate of large African ungulates, which were severely knocked out in the 19th – first half of the 20th century due to uncontrolled shooting. However, the buffalo population suffered much less than, for example, elephants – perhaps because, given the complexity and danger of hunting, the buffalo is not of commercial value (unlike the same elephant with valuable tusks or a rhinoceros with a valuable horn). Therefore, the number of buffaloes remained quite high. Much greater devastation among the buffaloes was caused by the epizootics of rinderpest, brought to Africa at the end of the 19th century with the cattle of white settlers. The first outbreaks of this disease among buffaloes were noted in 1890.

The buffalo at present, although it has disappeared in many places of its former habitat, is still numerous in places. The total number of buffalo of all subspecies in Africa is estimated at about a million heads. The state of the population, according to the estimates of the International Union for Conservation of Nature, "is under little threat, but depends on conservation measures" (eng. Lower risk, conservation dependent).

In a number of places in Africa, stable and sustainable buffalo populations live in protected areas. There are many buffaloes in such famous reserves as the Serengeti and Ngorongoro (Tanzania) and the National Park. Kruger (South Africa). Large herds of buffalo are found in Zambia, in reserves in the Luangwa River valley.

Outside reserves, the biggest threat to buffalo is habitat destruction. Buffaloes absolutely do not tolerate the cultural landscape and try to stay away from agricultural land, so the plowing and development of land, inevitable with the constant growth of the population of Africa, has an extremely negative effect on the number of buffaloes.

Many buffaloes are kept in zoos around the world. They breed well in captivity, but keeping them is quite difficult – buffaloes in the zoo are sometimes very aggressive. Cases have been noted when buffalo fights in the zoo led to death.

Asian buffalo

The Asian buffalo, or Indian buffalo (lat. Bubalus arnee) is an artiodactyl mammal from the bovid family. One of the largest bulls. Adults reach a length of more than 3 meters. The height at the withers reaches 2 m, and the weight can reach 1000 kg, in some cases up to 1200, on average, an adult male weighs about 900 kg. The horns reach up to 2 m, they are directed to the sides and back and have a crescent shape and a flattened section. Cows have small or no horns.

Appearance description

Despite the fact that the Indian buffalo species includes at least 6 subspecies, they are all united by similar appearance features. One of them is horns. Long, growing slightly backwards, they gently curve upwards and are a serious weapon, equally dangerous for predators and humans, as well as for other animals.

In Indian buffalo cows, the horns are not as prominent as those of bulls, they differ in shape – they are not curved, but straight. Sexual dimorphism is also manifested in size indicators – females are much smaller.

The Indian bull, with the exception of the dwarf variety, reaches a height of about 2 meters. Adult buffaloes weigh up to 900 kg on average. There are individual individuals weighing up to 1200 kg. The length of the barrel-shaped body is about 3-4 meters. Compared to other buffaloes, Indian bulls have relatively high legs. Representatives of the species have a long (up to 90 cm), massive tail.

In addition to the large dimensions of the body, nature has awarded Indian buffaloes with a decent long life, reaching up to 26 years in natural conditions.

Range and conservation problems

Wild Asian buffaloes live in India, Nepal, Butan, Thailand, Laos and Cambodia, as well as on Ceylon. Back in the middle of the 20th century, buffalo were found in Malaysia, but now, apparently, there were no wild animals left there. On the island of Minororo (the Philippines) in a special reserve, Iglita lived a special, dwarf deed, named Tamarau (V. B. Mindorensis). This subspecies already, apparently, died out.

But the historical area of the settlement of the buffalo is huge. Back at the beginning of the first millennium. E. The Indian buffalo met in a vast territory from Mesopotamia to South China.

In most places, buffalo now live in strictly protected areas, where they are accustomed to a person and are no longer wild in the strict sense of the word. The Indian buffalo was also imported in the 19th century to Australia and was widely settled in the north of the continent.

In the countries of Asia, the range and the number of Indian buffalo are constantly declining. The main reason for this is not hunting, which, as a rule, is limited and conducted by strict quotas, but the destruction of the environment, plowing and settlement of deaf territories. Places where a wild buffalo can live in a natural environment. In fact, now in India and on Sri Lanka the Range of a wild buffalo is completely attached to the national parks (the famous National Cazyrang fleet in the Indian state has a herd of buffalo more than a thousand heads). The situation in Nepal and Butana is a little better.

Another serious problem is the constant crossing of wild buffaloes with family, which is why the wild species gradually loses its purity. It is extremely difficult to avoid this due to the fact that almost everywhere wild buffalo has to live in the neighborhood with people and, accordingly, home buffalo contained on a free grazing.

Lifestyle and behavior

Indian buffalo is characterized by a herd lifestyle. Small groups are formed from the leader – the oldest by the age of the bull, several young males, as well as calves and cows. When the threat appears, the herd tries to get away from the pursuers as soon as possible. However, then animals are regrouped and expect enemies for a frontal attack, often on their own traces. In any situation, older animals are trying to protect young animals.

The Indian buffalo in nature connects his life with standing water: lakes or swamps, in extreme cases, he agrees to rivers with a slow current.

Ponds play an important role:

  1. Are a power source. Up to 70% of the total volume of vegetation grows in water. The rest of the buffalo is eaten in the coastal zone.
  2. Help Indian bulls cope with daytime heat. As a rule, buffaloes are allocated to search for food late evening or early morning. In the afternoon, animals do not come out of coastal mud or plunge into water. The only part of the body that remains in the air is the head.

Turtles live in the water, and there are always many birds nearby, in particular, white herons. They help Indian buffaloes cope with parasites. Those insects that constant companions of bulls do not reach in water do not get to the water.

At the same time, Indian bulls themselves are one of the essential sources of reproduction of natural resources. The manure that they produce helps to replenish the nutrients and supports the intensive growth of green mass.

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Small island buffalo

In the Philippines, or rather, on the small island of Minoro, there is a small dwarf buffal of Tamarou. Its growth is only 110 cm, the length of the case is 2-3 meters, and the weight is 180-300 kg. In appearance, it resembles an antelope more than a buffalo. The horns of the buffalo Tamarou are flat, bent back, each length of each is about 40 cm. They form a triangle at the base. The coat is liquid, black or chocolate shade, sometimes it is gray.

Even 100-150 years ago, the places where the buffalo of Tamarou lives was inextricable. There was a very dangerous strain of malaria on the island of Minoro, they were afraid to master it. Animals could calmly walk around the tropical thickets, without fear, because there are no large predators on the island, and Tamarou is the largest species there. But they learned to fight with malaria, the island began to actively settle, which led to a sharp reduction in the population. Now in the world there are no more than 100-200 individuals of this species, it is listed in the Red Book.

Another small buffalo lives on the island of Sulawesi. It is called anoa, even less in size than Tamarou. The growth of the ano is only 80 cm, and the body length is 160 cm. Females weigh about 150 kg, males reach 300 kg. There is almost no wool on their body, the skin color is black. Lights are born almost red. There are two varieties of this buffalo: the mountainous and plain buffal of the anoa. The plain ano has straight horns with a triangular cut, about 25 cm long. In the mountain ano – twisted and round.

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A small island buffalo has a life expectancy of about 20 years, which is much more than other species. Now the ano is extremely rare. Despite the fact that they are in Indonesia under guard, animals often become victims of poachers. Everywhere where a person appears, the active development of the territory begins.

Sulawesi is one of the most densely populated islands, because the places for the ano are becoming less and less, which does not affect the population in the best way. Perhaps soon this species can only be seen in the photo and video.


Until the 19th century, a dwarf wild buffalo from the island of Sulawesi densely inhabited the territory. However, with the growth of agriculture, the bulls began to leave the coastal areas, moving away from people. The dwarf animals chose mountainous areas with a new habitat.

Before the Second World War, the number of buffalo was significant. The rules of hunting protected the form from destruction, and moreover, local residents rarely killed anoa. The situation changed dramatically after the Second World War.

The local population acquired more serious firearms. Now the hunt for anoa has become available to them. Hunting rules were constantly violated, and the reserves built to protect buffalo were abandoned.

Due to animal's pugils, it is not possible to study the species thoroughly. It is known that both species are on the verge of disappearance. The exact number of wild buffaloes is unknown. There are much more mountain individuals in nature, thanks to the mountains in which you can hide from danger. Plain species are subject to attacks by predators and local residents, so their number is constantly declining.

The International Union of Nature Protection writes in the tribal book the number of animals living in captivity. This allows you to create a minimum fund of small bulls.

Homemade bulls

The Indian buffalo was domesticated several thousand years ago. Images of animals similar to buffalo can be found on ancient Greek vases and at the Sumerian tiles. Widespread throughout the southern territory of the Eurasian continent, bulls are still preserved as livestock in southern Europe and in Southeast Asia. They were imported to Hawaii, and Japan, and to Latin America.

In the Caucasian region, a local breed originating from Indian wild bulls has long been inhabited. Currently, breeding work is being carried out to improve local animals: to increase the release of meat and increase the dairy qualities of buffalis. Traditionally, the population was produced by Gatyg or Jogut, Kaimag (specially treated fatty cream) and ayran. Currently, industrial recipes for the manufacture of different varieties of cheese are being developed, because it is known that the Italian Mozarella according to the original recipe is made from violent milk.

Home bulls are common in Bulgaria (Indo-Bulgarian breeding group), and in Italy and the Balkan region. They are bred in Transcarpathia and the Lviv region (Ukraine). Both meat and buffalo milk are valuable foods.

In India, where the meat of ordinary cows is considered prohibited, home buffalo is a source of this protein food. The ban does not apply to domesticated bulls, and they are bred both as milk and cattle. In South-East Asia and Latin America, powerful, hardy animals are the best dragging force. With the help of bulls, people process rice fields, harnessing a buffalo in primitive plows and harrows. In mountainous or marshy areas where horses cannot work, various goods are transported to them.

Pets very often cross themselves with wild buffaloes, violating the purity of blood of the latter. And without that, rare, wild bulls lose their biological exclusivity, producing offspring with a mixed genotype. The purebred wild bulls remained only about 1 thousand heads.

Buffalo productivity

For almost all the main indicators of productivity, buffalo are significantly inferior to ordinary cows. So, the slaughter output usually does not exceed 47%, while in ordinary cattle, this indicator ranges from 50-60%. At the same time, the characteristics of the meat are very mediocre, if not more.

The meat of adult buffaloes is quite tough and, moreover, gives it strongly with a musk, so using it for food, as an ordinary beef will not work. It must either be given deep processing (for example, make sausages), or put on food to other animals (for example, do dog food). But the meat of young animals is more or less like beef, although it is noticeably inferior to it in taste. By the way, the wild buffaloes of Africa and Australia are objects of sports hunting, but their meat also has no particular value.

The average yields are also not particularly pleased-1400-1700 liters per lactation, which is 2-3 times lower than that of ordinary meat and dairy cows (not to mention purely milk rocks). However, the advantage of the buffalo is that their milk is very fat. While ordinary cow's milk contains from 2 to 4% fat, the buffalo contains 8%. In fact, buffaloes do not even give milk, but poorly cream.

A certain value is buffalo skins. The average mass of leather raw materials from one animal is 25-30 kg with an average thickness of about 7 mm.

Features of the content of Buffalo

According to the conditions of content, the Asian black buffalo is as close as possible to the ordinary cow. It grazes on the same pastures, lives in an ordinary barn and, in general, is not much different from the cow. At the same time, two diametrically opposite opinions regarding the nature of the buffalo have developed in the midst of cattle breeders.

Some argue that the buffaloes are incredibly moody and even aggressive: they recognize only one owner and allow themselves to milk only to him. But even his beloved owner often has to persuade his ward to share milk. Others, on the contrary, argue that the buffaloes are much more obedient than cows, and even stronger than dogs are tied to the owner.

Both the Indonesian dwarf buffalo and the domesticated Indian willingly eats the coarse and lowest feeds, which are usually unsuitable for cows. For example, these animals can fry straw and corn stems. In addition, we recall that domestic buffalo is called a "river type. "They can be safely raised in marshy and forest pastures, where ordinary cows do not graze. Buwls are very fond of coastal vegetation (reeds, sedge), and also without problems eat nettles, fern and even needles.

In a swampy area where it is problematic to breed ordinary cattle, buffalo feels very comfortable. Moreover, if there is at least a small reservoir nearby, they will willingly swim in it in the summer heat.

It is believed that the buffaloes are good for the cold, however, taking into account the southern origin of this species, this should not be abused. In regions with cold winters, animals are definitely needed by a warm capital barn.

Advantages and disadvantages of Buffalo

Traditionally, the term “cattle” is understood as ordinary cows and bulls, but the domesticated buffalo also belongs to this category of agricultural animals. And already, since it is the cows that are the main representative of this group, it makes sense to compare the advantages and disadvantages of buffalo in relation to them.

The obvious advantages are:

  1. High fat content of milk. The fat content on average is a little more than 8%, and subject to certain feeding rules, this indicator is easy to bring to 10% or more. Thus, buffalon milk is an ideal raw material for the production of butter and cheese. If for the production of 1 kg of oil you need 30-35 liters of cow's milk, then only 10-15 liters will need a buffalo. Thus, low boil yields are fully compensated
  2. Injected to feed. The cheap rough food, which is not suitable for cows, buffalo eat greatly, which significantly reduces their contents. Especially in the winter.

Good health. Buyls are much less susceptible to infectious cattle diseases. In addition, they can live in conditions of wet hot climate, which makes them a more preferable type of cattle in a marshy area. Especially in the south of the country.

However, the significance of the popularity of cows in USA has quite objective reasons.


Samuel Carter author About Author